REGIONs4CLIMATE / Resilient Regions / Castilla y León

Castilla y León

Location: North-western Spain

Population: 2.5 million

Area: 94,223 km2

Population density: 27 inhabitants per km2

Region-important activities: Agriculture is one of the strongest economic activities, but the whole region is demographically in decline, especially in rural areas and even in small traditional towns.

Challenges and solutions

Many inhabitants of the region, which is dedicated mainly to agriculture and livestock, have gradually relocated to urban areas and larger cities with better job prospects. As a consequence, the region shows a marked ageing of the population.

Rain is scarce and is concentrated mainly in the spring and autumn, resulting in marked summer drought and a high risk of forest fires.

The region will focus on the recovery of economic activity for rural areas under sustainable patterns and on supporting the region’s natural resources.

Source: Cartif

Castilla y León has committed to

Creating more sustainable job opportunities in rural areas

Using circular resource ideas and nature-based solutions

Generating sustainable energy

Producing food in a sustainable manner

Several innovative actions


Co-creating new job opportunities that are sustainable in the long term, based on climate-adapted technologies and practices. Particular emphasis will be placed on supporting the entrepreneurship of women and young people.

Implementing an educational programme for primary producers.

Harvesting olives.
Source: Cartif


Applying circular concepts and nature-based solutions for food production and energy generation.

Finding new sustainable ways to process, package, and distribute food.

Source: Cartif


Deriving and promoting Green Social Business Models (GSBM) through cooperatives and business agreements.

Boosting competitiveness in specific sectors and creating more jobs in the region.

Source: Cartif

Policy and governance

Promoting initiatives supporting regional mitigation and adaptation strategies.

Providing information and research to help make decisions about carbon neutral and zero-pollution food production.

Renfe high-speed train.
Source: Cartif

More Systemic Adaptation Challenge Suite

Castilla y León is part of the More Systemic Adaptation Challenge Suite, whose frontrunner region is Sitia. The Challenge Suite recognises that local citizens and SMEs are key actors in the society-wide transition towards climate resilience.

With a focus on close collaboration with local businesses and citizens, particularly in rural areas, the socio-cultural and economic impacts of climate change can be addressed at all levels of society.

Regional contact points

Esther San José


Discover the other regions in the More Systemic Adaptation Challenge Suite

Nordic Archipelago




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